5G. It was going to be a long road to rollouts in 2020. But now it’s looking like 2016 will be the first field implementations. That’s good news as our mobile data traffic is growing rapidly. According to Gartner, “Global mobile data traffic is set to reach 52 million terabytes (TB) in 2015, an increase of 59% from 2014. The rapid growth is set to continue through 2018, when mobile data levels are estimated to reach 173 million TB.”
Most of what we hear about 5G is speed…massive increases that will be 30 to 50 times faster than 4G/LTE. But 5G is also about low latency. Today, latencies run about 75 to 100 ms. 5G is aiming for a mere 1ms. This not only improves the online gaming experience, but allows for remote surgery and mission-critical Industrial IOT (IIoT) applications. 5G will also bring lower power consumption, traffic prioritization, and the real possibility of cutting all those cables running to our front doors.
The Next Generation Mobile Networks Alliance recently published a paper summarizing the core goals of 5G:
- Provide far greater throughput, lower latency, and higher connection density;
- Cope with a wide range of use cases and business models, a high degree of flexibility, and scalability by design;
- Leverage foundational shifts in cost and energy efficiency;
- Offer the end user a consistent customer experience achieved across time and service footprint; and
- Provide a truly global 5G ecosystem, free of fragmentation and open for innovations.
In addition, the group released technical documentation on “Recommendations For Small Cell Development and Deployment” and “Backhaul Provisioning for LTE-Advanced & Small Cells.”
But designing, building, and testing 5G wireless prototypes is a complex engineering feat. According to Kevin Linehan, VP and CTO of antenna systems at CommScope:
If 5G is really going to deliver speeds that are up to 1,000 times faster than the 4G we use today, it needs to utilize the spectrum it will travel over more effectively. Like the journeys to 3G and 4G, the RF path will be critical to the arrival at ‘Destination 5G,’ as will be the need for a high signal to noise ratio (SNR) to ensure a robust data service. This ratio has become increasingly important as the demands for high-speed data increase.
New multi-antenna technologies, such as Massive MIMO systems, are considered the most likely candidates to significantly improve spectral efficiency in 5G networks. Implementing MIMO with large-scale antenna arrays, typically with 64 or more transceiver elements, is expected to increase the capacity of a cell well beyond what is achievable today. Large-scale antenna systems become more practical in terms of size at higher frequencies, where the wavelengths become shorter. These antennas are likely to be an important technology in spectrum bands above 2GHz and in TDD spectrum where handset feedback is not needed.
5G will require adding more spectrum while continuing to support previous air-interface technologies and managing multiple frequency bands. Ever more sophisticated RF beamforming and interference mitigation technologies will need to be utilized.
The Challenge of High Frequency PCB Materials
As users demand smarter, lighter, higher performance devices on ever faster networks, designers of mobile devices and antennas need to balance weight, size, radiation characteristics (such as gain, beamwidth, side-lobe levels, polarization) and cost. The PCB substrate material has a major impact on circuit performance. Low dielectric constant (Dk)/low dissipation factor (Df) materials are desired to maximize radiation efficiencies of antennas while keeping overall losses to a minimum.
Rogers Corporation Advanced Connectivity Solutions provides a broad selection of high frequency circuit materials designed with these considerations in mind. Designers needing best in class performance or commercial high frequency materials can find solutions in Rogers’ extensive product portfolio and through collaboration with Rogers R&D teams to develop unique solutions for this new technology. 5G is shaping-up to impact every aspect of our lives. Finding the right balance of material performance and cost is a challenge for a technology that is yet to be fully defined.
Plated finishes are necessary additions to printed circuit boards (PCBs). Not only do PCB finishes provide smooth, solderable surfaces for attaching components, they also provide protection for a PCB’s copper conductors. Without such protection, a PCB’s conductive copper would quickly oxidize and deteriorate when exposed to the environment, resulting in degraded circuit performance. The added protection provided by a PCB’s plated finish means added loss, however. The choice of plated finish can make a real difference in a PCB’s conductive loss, especially for broadband, high frequency circuits. To better understand the loss performance of different plated finishes, various transmission lines were fabricated on different circuit laminates and different plated finishes applied.
PCBs, with or without a plated finish, suffer losses that typically increase with increasing frequency. The losses that circuit designers measure on a microwave transmission line, such as microstrip, stripline, or grounded coplanar waveguide (GCPW), stem from a combination of signal losses from the PCB, including conductor loss, dielectric loss, radiation loss, and leakage loss adding up to form insertion loss. Circuit design also contributes to the loss performance: Achieving good impedance matching along transmission lines, at circuit junctions, and at component mounting points helps to minimize signal reflections and losses from those reflections, often measured in a circuit’s transmission lines as return loss.
Copper is an excellent conductor, with low insertion loss for transmission lines and cables formed from copper. But the copper on the dielectric materials of PCBs does not always offer the smoothest, most level surface for mounting miniature circuit components, such as those in ball-grid-array (BGA) housings or tiny surface-mount-technology (SMT) packages. A plated finish can provide that smooth mounting surface for miniature components, and it can deliver long-term protection against copper deterioration. Some finishes also protect the plated through holes (PTHs) that serve as the electrical connections between different circuit layers in multilayer PCBs. Unfortunately, most PCB finishes come with a price, since most increase insertion loss to some degree, depending upon frequency and other factors, including the thickness of the substrate, choice of transmission-line technology, and layout of the circuit and how it is affected by the finish.
Most plated PCB finishes are less conductive than the copper conductors formed on the PCB’s dielectric material, and will suffer more loss than copper, especially at higher frequencies. The exception is silver, an excellent conductor, which is also expensive and usually applied in a very thin layer as a finish. PCB conductor losses are frequency dependent mostly due to the manner in which RF current uses a conductor. At lower frequencies, the RF current will use more of the conductor. At higher frequencies, the RF current tends to flow along the surface of the conductor, using only the outside skin of the conductor. Conductor loss rises as the RF current uses less of the conductor, and because of these skin effects at higher frequencies, plated finishes can have greater impact on PCB insertion loss at higher frequencies.
The impact of a plated finish on PCB insertion loss can also depend on the transmission-line technology. For example, for microstrip, with high current density along the edges of the conductor, the plated finish can have significant impact on conductor loss. For GCPW with current density distributed along the four edges of the ground-signal-ground conductor, the plated finish will have more impact on conductor loss.
Finding a Finish
A number of different plated finishes are available for high-frequency circuit boards, including electroless-nickel-immersion-gold (ENIG) finish, organic surface protectant (OSP), electroless nickel, electroless palladium, immersion gold (ENIPIG) finish, and soldermask finish. For example, for an ENIG finish, nickel is plated onto a PCB’s conductive copper, serving as a barrier between the copper and a thin layer of gold that is applied thereafter. The thin layer of gold, an excellent conductor, typically disappears and is absorbed into soldered connections as components are soldered onto the PCB’s transmission lines and conductive traces. As might be apparent from the materials used in this finish, it is expensive, but it is RoHS compliant and provides excellent protection for PTHs in multilayer circuit assemblies.
PCB finishes using OSP are popular as environmentally sound, “green” PCB treatments that are lead free and provide extremely flat mounting surfaces for components. This low-cost finish is applied by means of a chemical bath process and it is a very low-cost finish, but it is not well suited for PTH protection and there is no way to measure the thickness of the finish when trying to evaluate the reliability of the finishing process. Additionally, OSP is typically considered a temporary finish and not a permanent, final finish, although in an optimum environment it may have extended life. Soldermask is a polymer material that provides a protective coating for copper traces and prevents solder from making unwanted connections and short circuits.
Comparing Insertion Loss
How do the different plated finishes compare in terms of PCB conductor loss and insertion loss? By fabricating some circuits with different types of transmission lines on some standard PCB laminates and using different plated finishes, it was possible to compare the impacts of different finishes on insertion loss by means of measurements and computer simulations. For example, with microstrip and GCPW transmission lines on RO4003C™ laminates from Rogers Corp., measurements revealed significantly less loss for microstrip with bare copper than for microstrip with an ENIG finish. However, measurements also revealed that more difference in loss existed for GCPW with bare copper than for GCPW with an ENIG finish.
When circuits were fabricated on different thicknesses (6.6, 10.0, and 30.0 mil thick) of RO4350B™ laminates from Rogers Corp., the total insertion loss tended to be less for the thicker materials. Thinner circuits are dominated more by conductor losses than other losses and, for each plated finish evaluated, it added to the PCB’s conductor losses.
With yet another circuit material evaluated during these plated finish tests and simulations, 5-mil-thick RT/duroid® 6002 circuit laminates using rolled copper from Rogers Corp., significantly higher conductor losses were found for microstrip circuits with ENIG plated copper conductors than for microstrip circuits with bare copper conductors, when tested at frequencies through 40 GHz. However, when the copper conductors for the same material were plated with immersion silver, little difference in conductor loss was found between microstrip circuits with bare copper and those with immersion silver plating, even for frequencies through 100 GHz (using a differential measurement method). For the same circuit material, little difference was found for microstrip circuits with bare copper conductors and with OSP copper conductors, even through 100 GHz. When soldermask was evaluated for this circuit material, microstrip circuits with bare copper conductors exhibited considerably less loss than copper conductors with soldermask.
In short, the lowest conductor losses, with microstrip and GCPW, are achieved using bare copper conductors. But it is not realistic to fabricate reliable PCBs with bare copper conductors, and plated PCB finishes provide much-needed long-term protection. As was discovered from measurements and simulations, all PCB plated finishes are not the same, with some suffering less loss than others. For measurements on high-frequency PCB materials through 110 GHz, circuits with bare copper conductors have the least conductor loss, followed by circuits with immersion tin, ENIPIG finish, and then ENIG finish.
Author’s Note: This ROG blog is based on a presentation at PCB West 2015 Conference & Exhibition, “Wideband Insertion Loss Testing of Multiple PCB Final Plated Finishes.” In that presentation, considerable broadband, high-frequency test data and computer simulations were compared for different finishes on several commercial circuit laminates from Rogers Corp.
ROG Mobile App
Download the ROG Mobile app to access Rogers’ calculators, including the popular Microwave Impedance simulation tool, literature, technical papers, and the ability to order samples of the company’s high performance printed circuit board materials.
Ask an Engineer
Do you have a design or fabrication question? Rogers Corporation’s experts are available to help. Log in to the Rogers Technology Support Hub and “Ask an Engineer” today.
Tech companies and car manufacturers are making big investments in battery technology. And for good reason. Sales of electric vehicles (EVs), including battery-electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid vehicles (PEVs) are soaring, especially in the EU where gasoline prices are 2-4x higher than in the U.S. Increased use of mobile devices is also driving the need for battery innovations, even as chips and operating systems are designed to be more efficient and save power. The latest IDC Worldwide Quarterly Mobile Phone Tracker shows 6.8% growth in smartphone units shipped in Q3 2015 vs Q3 2014 to over 355 million units. Add to that, growth in wearables, laptops, tablets, and smart homes.
But battery technology has been slow to change over the years. Li-Ion has dominated to date because a lithium anode has a high energy density and is lightweight. In an interesting article, “Why We Don’t Have Battery Breakthroughs” in MIT Technology Review, Kevin Bullis writes:
One difficult thing about developing better batteries is that the technology is still poorly understood. Changing one part of a battery—say, by introducing a new electrode—can produce unforeseen problems, some of which can’t be detected without years of testing.
In startup Envia, they had licensed a promising material developed by researchers at Argonne National Laboratory. Subsequently, a major problem was discovered. The problem—which one battery company executive called a “doom factor”—was that over time, the voltage at which the battery operated changed in ways that made it unusable. Argonne researchers investigated the problem and found no ready answer. They didn’t understand the basic chemistry and physics of the material well enough to grasp precisely what was going wrong, let alone fix it.
The single most important factor in achieving a mass-market BEV is cost. “Estimates are that the cost of battery packs needs to fall to below US$150 per kWh for BEVs to become cost-competitive with internal combustion vehicles,” said Bjorn Nykvist and Mans Nilsson in their Nature Climate Change paper, “Rapidly falling costs of battery packs for electric vehicles.” For Li-Ion battery packs, costs have decreased over the last 8 years, from above US$1,000 per kWh to around US$300 per kWh.
Innovations in Li-Ion Battery Design
New developments show much promise. According to Brookings Institution’s TechTank blog:
Lithium heats up and expands during charging, causing leaked lithium ions to build up on a battery’s surface. These growths short-circuit the battery and decrease its overall life. Researchers at Stanford recently made headway on these problems by forming a protective nanosphere layer on the lithium anode that moves with the lithium as it expands and contracts.
Figure 1. Movement of lithium ions and electrons in a Li-Ion battery during charging and use.
Israeli startup StoreDot has developed a new type of Li-Ion battery that it says can be fully charged in a few minutes. In a standard Li-Ion battery, the internal resistance blocks the flow of the current and makes it more difficult to deliver spikes of power. StoreDot is using bio-organic peptide “nanodots” to make very thin battery electrodes with supercapacitor-like rapid charging and a Li-Ion-like slow discharging.
Beyond Lithium Ion
Researchers at BASF recently doubled the amount of energy that can be stored in an older type of battery, nickel-metal hydride, now used in HEVs. This makes them comparable to Li-Ion batteries in terms of storage, but with the advantage of increased safety. They don’t use flammable liquids, so their cooling systems and electronic controls are simpler. The scientists changed the microstructure of the batteries to make them more durable and lighter. They can store 140 watt-hours per kilogram. Li-Ion can store up to 230 watt-hours per kilogram, but the added weight counters that advantage.
Scientists at UCLA’s California NanoSystems Institute have developed a hybrid device that goes beyond simple changes in battery cell chemistry. According to Green Car Reports:
The experimental device combines the energy density of a lead-acid battery with the quick charge and discharge rates of a supercapacitor. It’s six times as energy-dense as the average commercial supercapacitor. That combination of qualities has great potential impact for electric cars. It would theoretically offer more compact energy storage and faster charging without sacrificing range.
Researchers claim the version being tested can hold twice as much charge as a typical thin-film lithium battery–but on a surface one-fifth the thickness of a piece of paper. This performance was reportedly achieved by maximizing the contact area between the electrolyte and the two electrodes. Those electrodes are made from manganese dioxide, but feature a three-dimensional laser-scribed graphene (LSG) structure.
Second Life Battery Applications
EV batteries lose their ability to propel a vehicle over time.There is a growing market for EV batteries in after-life commercial applications, such as power generation on the grid. GM, for instance, is using the Volt battery system to supplement renewable power gen at one of its facilities, making the facility a net zero building. Nissan and Green Charge have developed ex-EV battery systems that companies can use to manage their utility demand charges, substituting battery power for electricity from the grid during peak pricing.
Eventually, carmakers will incorporate EV batteries while they’re still installed in cars, using vehicle-to-grid (V2G) systems. Such an approach promises better regulation of frequencies on the grid to smooth the power loads and lower usage during peak demand periods. The U.S. Department of Defense has invested $20 million in the DoD Plug-In Electric Vehicle Program, which has so far installed 500 V2G-enabled vehicles at bases in the states. This program has shown that frequency regulation alone can reduce the monthly lease price of a plug-in electric sedan by 72%.
Regardless of the application, batteries need to be packaged to absorb internal impact energy. PORON® polyurethane and BISCO® silicone foams withstand collapse that can happen due to the stresses of compression and temperature in battery packs over time. This Compression Set Resistance (C-set resistance) can help extend the life of the battery by continuing to seal and absorb shock. These unique foams from Rogers Corporation also have a unique ability to act as a spring by retaining a very consistent level of force across a range of compressions. This allows the designer more flexibility and reliability in packaging of the battery pack due to the ability to predict the cushioning material’s behavior across varied dimensional tolerances.
Tangible improvements in battery technology are surfacing. This will have a significant impact on our use of EVs and mobile devices, and, when combined with developments in renewable energy, will drive interesting global changes in economic and political norms.
A message from Bruce Hoechner, CEO, Rogers Corporation:
Read the corporate financials news release: Rogers Corporation Reports Results for the Third Quarter of 2015.
In Q3 2015, Rogers achieved another quarter of strong non-GAAP earnings, delivering $0.79 per diluted share, exceeding our previously announced guidance. Although net sales decreased by 1.6% from Q3 2014 to $160.4 million, we delivered non-GAAP operating margin of 14.7%, which is in line with our goal of 15%. The Company believes our revenue decline is linked to the impact of the uncertain global macroeconomic conditions. This situation has resulted in the delay of infrastructure spending, leading to weaker demand in certain applications across all three business segments. During the third quarter, we maintained a disciplined approach to cost management and continued our focus on operational excellence initiatives. These efforts contributed to our solid margin performance, despite sizable market headwinds. While we are cautious in the near term based on current market conditions, we remain confident in the longer-term growth expectations in our key megatrend markets. I will speak more about the growth outlook for our key markets later. I’d like to review the four elements of our growth strategy. This roadmap has proven to be the right approach, and we firmly believe that it will lead us to a strong recovery when the global markets improve. As a market-driven organization, we believe the diversity of Rogers’ three megatrend categories provides an effective counterbalance for the variability of any specific market. For example, the impact of slower-than-expected recovery in China’s wireless telecommunications base station buildout has been partially offset by the strong demand in advanced driver assistance systems. We remain confident that we are in the right global growth markets based on the projected long-term growth rates in key applications. In the area of innovation leadership, we are pleased to announce the September 2015 opening of the Rogers Innovation Center in Asia. Our approach has been to collaborate with leading researchers to bring breakthrough technology to our customers. China has great capabilities in this area, so we expanded our scope to give us better access to the technology development in that region. I am encouraged by what I see in the pipeline from our innovation centers, as well as from the business segments where our R&D teams continue to focus on next-generation solutions. During 2015, we have increased our R&D investment to over 4% of revenues to support this strong pipeline of next-generation and new technology to meet market demand. Our focus on synergistic M&A is making a positive contribution to revenues, as well as providing greater technological capabilities and market access to Rogers. We are pleased with the smooth integration of Arlon, which is now substantially complete. Most importantly, the business has performed consistently, exceeding our revenue and profitability targets we established at the outset of the integration. Rogers’ bottom-line performance is evidence of our solid execution of our operational excellence initiatives. With fluctuating market conditions like the ones we face now, we are aggressively controlling what we can by operating the business more efficiently. And we are making great progress in implementing process and system improvements across the Company, from the manufacturing floor to our back-office functions. Our approach includes formalized programs such as Six Sigma and supply and demand planning, as well as active engagement from front line employees for operations improvements. Together, these approaches are assisting all three of our business segments to improve yields and lower costs. Our interim three-year financial goals serve as a checkpoint in our long-term plan. While we are facing some unanticipated market headwinds, we remain confident in our long-term growth prospects of achieving 15% revenue growth through a combination of organic and acquired growth. Net sales for the quarter were $160.4 million, a 1.6% decrease from Q3 2014. Non-GAAP earnings exceeded guidance, with EPS of $0.79 per diluted share. On a currency adjusted basis, organic net sales declined 14.1% compared to Q3 2014. Fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates unfavorably impacted Rogers’ revenue by approximately 4.6%. During the quarter, the legacy Arlon business helped to substantially offset the decline in organic sales, contributing $27.8 million in net sales, and EPS of $0.19. Gross margin declined 250 basis points from 39.6% in Q3 2014 to 37.1% in Q3 2015. As previously mentioned, our discipline around operational efficiency helped us deliver non-GAAP operating margin of 14.7%, which was down 270 basis points from a record high of 17.4% in Q3 2014. Advanced Connectivity Solutions ACS achieved record third-quarter net sales of $66.2 million, driven by $16.6 million from Arlon, which is an increase of 4.4% over Q3 2014. We saw healthy revenue for 4G/LTE antenna applications, as well as advanced driver assistance systems, and aerospace and defense applications. The demand in these segments was not enough to offset the weakness in power amps for wireless base stations and higher inventory levels still being worked off in the supply chain. The ACS team is committed to manufacturing process efficiency and implementing process and system enhancements to reduce costs and improve on-time delivery for our customers. Based on what we’re seeing in the marketplace, such as uncertainty from the equipment providers, we’re cautious in the near-term. We maintain our belief that global coverage and capacity requirements for 4G/LTE infrastructure will drive stronger demand in the mid- to long-term. For base station antenna applications, we believe the inventory in the supply chain is balanced, and we expect demand to remain strong as more multiband antennas are deployed to support the 4G/LTE rollout and wireless data traffic requirements. In the automotive market, we expect to see strong growth in advanced driver assistance systems, where the compounded annual growth rate is projected to be 31% through 2020. Elastomeric Material Solutions EMS achieved a net sales of $46.8 million, including $6 million from Arlon, which is roughly flat year-over-year. Solid top-line results and mass transit and automotive were more than offset by weaker demand in portable electronics. As we reported last quarter, the demand shift in portable electronics is twofold. First is the decline in overall mobile phone volume, and, more specifically, feature phone volume. Second is the continued migration away from the use of LCD phone gaskets in smartphone and tablet designs. The EMS organization is addressing the headwinds in the portable electronics market by refocusing the business on other growth categories. We continue to see opportunities in the general industrial and mass transit markets, where experts predict strong long-term demand despite near-term softness due to market conditions, as well as in consumer impact and protection. And we see more opportunities for growth through geographic expansion in all of these segments. In addition to pursuing these growth opportunities, EMS has implemented a number of process improvements that are contributing to ongoing yield increases and cost savings. Enhancements to sales and operations planning have led to greater accuracy in production planning and on-time delivery, improving customer satisfaction. Power Electronics Solutions PES net sales were $36.6 million, a decrease of 21.3% compared to Q3 2014. On a currency adjusted basis, PES sales declined 9.7% from the prior year. We believe slowing investments in infrastructure caused by weakened economic conditions has delayed spending that is a substantial part of the PES business. Foreign exchange rates have also impacted PES significantly, more than our two other segments, due to the customer and manufacturing locations of the business. Our results reflect steady demand in EV/HEV applications, as well as a moderate increase in laser diodes. This performance was more than offset by weaker demand in mass transit variable frequency motor drives, and certain renewable energy applications. Within the PES markets, we see long-term growth in EV/HEV markets based on worldwide demand for improved fuel efficiency and a reduction in CO2 emissions. This focus is also driving growth in vehicle electrification, or X-By-Wire applications, where the compounded annual growth rate is expected to be 13% through 2020. We see tempered demand in the near-term, due to continued delays in infrastructure spending. From an operational standpoint, PES continues to invest in automation and process technology to improve — improvements to lower costs and increase throughput. These efforts are also leading to yield increases, more consistent product quality, and a substantial reduction in cycle time. Megatrends This quarter, 65% of Rogers’ Q3 revenues came from our megatrend markets. While the short term is less clear due to economic conditions, we believe that the macro trends in our specific markets point to continued growth in the coming years. The Internet connectivity, for example, consumer demand for mobile video content is expected to drive a 57% compounded annual growth rate in mobile data traffic over the next four years. In relation to clean energy, consumer demand and government mandates for fossil fuel alternatives are contributing to a strong growth outlook in the EV/HEV market, where the compounded annual growth rate is 32% through 2020. In addition, experts are predicting a compounded annual growth rate of more than 6.4% through 2020 in industrial motor drive applications. Our newest megatrend, safety and protection, also presents many opportunities. This megatrend is driven, in large part, by the strong demand for applications in automotive radar systems, where industry experts are predicting a compounded annual growth rate of more than 30% through 2019. Another key opportunity for Rogers lies in the personal protective equipment market, where government regulations and workplace mandates are driving compounded annual growth rate of 7.3% through 2020. I’d like to take a moment to expand upon this week’s announcement regarding CFO David Mathieson’s upcoming retirement from Rogers. Since joining us from early retirement nearly a year and a half ago, David assisted us through the successful acquisition of Arlon, led the restructuring of our debt, raised our visibility in the capital markets, and further developed our global finance organizational capabilities. He is leaving a lasting, positive impact at Rogers. I personally want to wish David all the best as he returns to his retirement. We expect to announce David’s successor in the near-term.
Rogers Corporation (NYSE: ROG) plans to announce results for its 2015 third quarter after the market close on Wednesday, October 28, 2015. A copy of the release will be available on the Rogers Corporation website.
All interested parties are invited to participate in Rogers’ quarterly teleconference on Thursday, October 29, 2015 at 9:00 am ET. Bruce D. Hoechner, President and CEO, and members of senior management will review the results and then respond to questions.
To participate in the teleconference please call 1-800-574-8929 toll free in the U.S. or 1-973-935-8524 from outside the U.S. There is no pass code for the teleconference.
For interested parties who do not wish to ask questions, the call is being webcast live by Thomson Reuters and may be accessed through a link on the Rogers Corporation website.
A slide presentation will be made available prior to the start of the call. The slide presentation may be accessed on the Rogers Corporation website under the Investor Relations section of the website.
If you are unable to participate during the live teleconference, the call will be archived until Wednesday, November 4, 2015. The audio archive can be accessed by calling 1-855-859-2056 in the U.S. or 1-404-537-3406 from outside the U.S. The pass code for the audio replay is 30242312. To access the archived audio online, please visit the Rogers Corporation website and click on the “listen to conference call replay” link.