Today’s manufacturers of automotive fleets and mass transportation systems are motivated to meet fuel efficiency and emission requirements, as well as market demands for reduced costs. e-Mobility (electro mobility or advanced mobility) refers to clean and efficient electric and hybrid vehicles that use electric powertrain technologies, in-vehicle information, communication technologies, and connected infrastructures.
e-Mobility efforts are gaining traction around the world. According to EURACTIV, Europe is making major gains:
Metros and tramways are electric and provide high-capacity, zero-emission public transport systems in many European cities. Likewise, about 80% of Europe’s mainline rail traffic is powered by electricity. Several EU member states are now pushing towards a 100% electrified rail network, with the potential to reduce the CO2 emissions of rail to zero if they achieve it.
And road transport is catching up. Last year, the number of electric vehicles (EVs) purring up and down the world’s roads surpassed two million. This may not seem a lot when set against the total number of cars on the road (which is probably in excess of a billion) but it does represent remarkable and sustained growth. EV sales climbed by nearly 40% in the US last year, while China has become the largest single market in the world for EVs and plug-in hybrids, with sales only expected to grow as government-backed investment presses on.
You can find Rogers’ advanced materials in a wide variety of eMobility platforms: power electronics solutions for electrical oil pumps and battery packs, high-frequency PCB laminates for electrical power steering and antennas, and gaskets and vibration management foams for airbag sensors and sound systems. Let’s take a closer look at the electronics inside these vehicles.
High frequency PCB substrates are found in Adaptive Cruise Control, Antenna Boosters, Automated Tolling Tags, Blind Spot Detection, Collision Avoidance and Mitigation, GPS, Rear Cross Traffic Alert, Telematics, and V2X Antennas.
Ceramic substrates are found in Air Conditioning Compressors, Battery (Fast) Chargers, Converters, Electrical Power Steering, Inverters, Liquid Heater PTC, Oil Pumps, Start-Stop Systems, and Vacuum Pumps.
Power distribution systems are found in AC-DC Converters/DC-DC Converters, Battery Modules, Motors, Power Steering, and Start-Stop Systems.
Active Safety Systems
New cars are increasingly equipped with robust crash avoidance technologies. These active safety technologies are enabled by innovative Advanced Driver Assistance Systems using sensor technologies, such as radar, to detect collisions.
Rogers’ Advanced Connectivity Solutions group provides high performance PCB laminates for 24 GHz and 77 GHz automotive radar sensor applications. The RO4000® and RO3000® series materials enable radar sensors to detect upcoming collisions to prevent road accidents. In addition, RO4000® high frequency circuit materials are successfully used in 24 GHz radar sensors for blind spot detection or rear cross traffic alert.
Forward collision warning, emergency brake assist, adaptive cruise control, and traffic jam pilots require radar sensors that operate in the 76-81 GHz range. RO3000® High Frequency Laminates have an excellent Dk tolerance of ± 0.04 and at this high frequency concerns with insertion loss are paramount. These laminates also offer an extremely low dissipation factor, ensuring the dielectric loss component of insertion loss will be very low.
Vehicle to vehicle (V2V) or vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) communications systems send information via dedicated short range at 5.9GHz (DSRC) or intelligent transportation system G5 (ITS-G5) and 3G/4G cellular network. Rogers’ high frequency materials help antenna´s and modules to achieve high performance and reliable connections between cars and infrastructure even at high speed and under harsh vehicle environments.
Power Connectivity and Distribution
As power from a battery is expensive, the challenge is to use the electric power as efficiently as possible. The primary inverter needs to minimize switching losses and maximize thermal efficiency. Auxiliary inverters are used to power vehicle electrification solutions. The range of the vehicle is directly related to the efficiency of these inverters.
Semiconductor-based power systems are able to optimize overall system cost, minimize power losses, increase power density, maximize power savings, extend mileage, and improve battery efficiency.
RO-LINX® busbars from the Power Electronics Solutions group focus on efficient power distribution and lower energy losses, increasing the range of electric vehicles. These laminated busbars provide a customized liaison between the power source and capacitors, resistors, integrated circuits (ICs), integrated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs), or complete modules.
Within the circuit board, power substrates provide interconnections and cool components. curamik® ceramic substrates are designed to carry higher currents, provide higher voltage isolation, and operate over a wide temperature range.