3G, 4G, and now 5G?! These mobile network terms are a big part of the way companies differentiate various phones and tablets. It was easy in the beginning…1G meant analog cell phones and 2G meant digital phones. 3G, third-generation, networks were supposed to bring broadband speeds to mobile devices. But there are so many varieties of 3G that you could get speeds from 400Kbps to more than 10X that. 4G phones are supposed to be even faster, but that’s not always the case. According to PC Magazine,

The International Telecommunications Union, a standards body, tried to issue requirements to call a network 4G but they were ignored by carriers, and eventually the ITU backed down. 4G technologies include HSPA+ 21/42, WiMAX, and LTE (although some consider LTE the only true 4G of that bunch, and some people say none of them are fast enough to qualify.)

cisco_global_mobileWith all this variability, PC Magazine runs an annual “Fastest Mobile Networks test across the US. The results for 2014 show different carriers ranking at the top in different regions.

But what type of mobile traffic is actually being used? How many 4G devices are out there? Are faster 4G connections consuming more bandwidth?

With networking equipment installed around the world, Cisco is in a unique position to measure data traffic. According to the “Cisco Visual Networking Index: Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast Update, 2013-2018,”

In 2013, a fourth-generation (4G) connection generated 14.5 times more traffic on average than a non-4G connection. Although 4G connections represent only 2.9% of mobile connections today, they already account for 30% of mobile data traffic.

The Mobile Network in 2013

More results from the Cisco report include…

  • Global mobile data traffic reached 1.5 exabytes per month at the end of 2013, up from 820 petabytes per month at the end of 2012.
  • Last year’s mobile data traffic was nearly 18 times the size of the entire global Internet in 2000. One exabyte of traffic traversed the global Internet in 2000, and in 2013 mobile networks carried nearly 18 exabytes of traffic.
  • Mobile video traffic exceeded 50% for the first time in 2012. Mobile video traffic was 53 percent of traffic by the end of 2013.
  • Over half a billion (526 million) mobile devices and connections were added in 2013. Global mobile devices and connections in 2013 grew to 7 billion, up from 6.5 billion in 2012. Smartphones accounted for 77% of traffic.
  • In 2013, on an average, a smart device generated 29 times more traffic than a non-smart device.
  • Mobile network connection speeds more than doubled in 2013. Globally, the average mobile network downstream speed in 2013 was 1,387 kilobits per second (Kbps), up from 526 Kbps in 2012.
  • The top 1% of mobile data subscribers generated 10 percent of mobile data traffic, down from 52% at the beginning of 2010.
  • Average smartphone usage grew 50% in 2013. The average amount of traffic per smartphone in 2013 was 529 MB per month, up from 353 MB per month in 2012.
  • Smartphones represented only 27% of total global handsets in use in 2013, but represented 95% of total global handset traffic. In 2013, the typical smartphone generated 48 times more mobile data traffic (529 MB per month) than the typical basic-feature cell phone (which generated only 11 MB per month of mobile data traffic).

The Mobile Network Through 2018

Cisco projects mobile data traffic will reach the following milestones within the next five years.

  • Monthly global mobile data traffic will surpass 15 exabytes by 2018.
  • The number of mobile-connected devices will exceed the world’s population by 2014.
  • The average mobile connection speed will surpass 2 Mbps by 2016.
  • Due to increased usage on smartphones, smartphones will reach 66 percent of mobile data traffic by 2018.
  • Monthly mobile tablet traffic will surpass 2.5 exabyte per month by 2018.
  • Tablets will exceed 15 percent of global mobile data traffic by 2016.
  • 4G traffic will be more than half of the total mobile traffic by 2018.
  • There will be more traffic offloaded from cellular networks (on to Wi-Fi) than remain on cellular networks by 2018.

RO4000The Challenge of High Frequency PCB Materials

As users demand smarter, lighter, higher performance devices, designers need to balance weight, size, and radiation characteristics, such as gain, beamwidth, side-lobe levels, and polarization. The choice of PCB substrate material has a major impact. For instance, the high concentration of electrical energy in dielectric materials with high dielectric constants (Dk), degrades radiation efficiency.

Rogers Corporation provides a broad selection of high frequency circuit materials that are designed with these considerations in mind. Some materials have high dielectric constant to aid in the size reduction of antennas, for instance, while others are made with easy to process resins to assist in the reduction of cost for high frequency printed circuit boards.

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There are a number of test methods to determine the dielectric constant of circuit materials used in the microwave or high frequency industry.

In this video, “Common Test Methods for Measuring Dielectric Constant,” you will learn about the most common test methods like Clamped Stripline Resonator Test, Split Post Dielectric Resonator, Full Sheet Resonance (FSR), and Microstrip Differential Phase Length Method.

For additional information and technical tools, join us at rogerscorp.com/techub

There is a fundamental reengineering of the electrical services industry underway. A lot of that change is centered on technical infrastructure and “smart grids.” A smart grid adds intelligence to the electric grid in the form of sensors, smart meters, communications technology, and advanced control methods. The goal is to gather information about the behavior of consumers and suppliers in order to improve the efficiency, reliability, and sustainability of the production and distribution of electricity.

Communications networks enable a two-way flow of data. Understanding how data flows most effectively to and from a control center to devices on the grid will dictate the design parameters for the networks.

Handling Critical Data

Backhaul, high volume data flow with high bandwidth requirements, is the most critical data for power utilities. This includes customer use and billing info, as well as data flow from grid devices to the control center.

Data varies in terms of speed, bandwidth, and throughput. This results in a hybrid communications network to handle the various data flows. Regardless of the speed, backhaul needs the most security, whether wired (fiber optics) or wireless (microwave).

Per IEEE’s smart grid expert, John McDonald:

In the upper grid, closest to the control center, point-to-point technology such as fiber optic cable typically is used to connect the control center with the substations. The number of locations of transmission-level substations that need to be connected with the control center is small, but the density of each is high. High bandwidth is needed for reliability.

Further out on the system, point-to-point technology yields to point-to-multipoint systems. The further you go from the control center, the number of substations increases but the criticality of the data falls off. Typically, the largest number of substations exists as points scattered over a broad area where the network relies on licensed and unlicensed wireless spectrum to provide high throughput at relatively modest cost.

Public wi-fi networks are a good option as they can blanket wide areas cost-effectively. At the edge of the grid, unlicensed spread-spectrum technology is most effective; because these are commonly found in rural areas, little interference is expected.

Preventing Damage

RO4000Preventing thermal and voltage fluctuations is a must for these high performance communication systems. It is also critical to balance demanding performance parameters: signal integrity, dielectric constant (Dk), dissipation factor (Df), and thermal conductivity.

Rogers’ high frequency laminates and circuit materials are designed for the demands of high reliability electronics. The RO4000® Series High Frequency Circuit Materials combine high frequency performance with low cost fabrication methods. The RO3000 High Frequency Laminates (PTFE/Ceramic) deliver improved temperature stability at a fraction of the cost of traditional military-grade counterparts.

 

Everything changes with time and printed circuit boards are no different! Watch this video to learn about four items that contribute to the aging of high frequency PCBs and the impact on electrical performance.

Once you’ve watched the video, send us your thoughts on Twitter at @Rogers_ACM. We love hearing from you!

Banding in tonal areas is a common problem for many printers, especially in the Narrow Web industry. These bands of alternating high and low ink density are shown below. This defect has many causes, including machine vibration as well as image layout on the plate.

poly
In order to eliminate the problem of gear banding, we recommend using SA2000 open-cell urethane cushion mounting tape. This provides unequaled energy absorption that eliminates the banding defect in most situations. Compared to closed-cell polyethylene foam mounting tapes, open-cell better prevents plate bounce and dissipates vibration resulting in noticeably more uniform tonal areas.

 OpenCell

Still not convinced? A simple ball drop demonstration shows a dramatic difference between these two different types of mounting tapes and how they handle impact energy. This difference can improve your print quality.